Haryana is by comparison a smaller state out of 30 states with area of 44212 sq.kms. Next door Punjab is 50362 sq.kms, Himachal Pradesh 55673 sq.kms. Among larger in area states are Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, Rajasthan. In years to follow, next door Rajasthan is poised for greater sustainable developmental (SD) activities. SD has become a global phenomenon in response to climate change,and because of new science paradigm that has brought forth a biological/ecological world order in which all social and scientific disciplines are integrated. The UNESCO started this SD movement for Biosphere on the whole. The UN took over the work of formulating new environmental laws. The 1972 UN Declaration was adopted to protect nature,and have a new dialogue with nature of man’s partnership with nature and a conservation movement for natural resources. The UN adopted recently 17 SD goals to reduce global warming caused by increase in carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide,methane and other GHG. Mankind is set to meet in Paris in December 2015 to draft a new treaty for global climate control and to reduce global temperature by two degrees bring it to pre-industrial age, and to save planet earth from natural disasters for humans. I gave this short introduction necessary to understand SD movement in Haryana.
2. Main Features Of Sustainable Development Movement In India.
Before we examine SD in Haryana,it is wise to reflect on overall picture of SD in India. As SD is related to climate changes,it is necessary to look to main interests India has in climate change(CC).A roadmap to Paris UN meet has been discussed by GOI Ministries concerned. Vishwamohan writes in times of India that there are five pillars of strength key to climate deal. These include adaptation, mitigation, finance, technology transfer, and capacity building. Poverty removal and food security are our main concerns. The rich countries are keen on mitigation (emission cut) measures. India is working on its Internally National Determined Cuts (INDCs) for emissions of GHG. It has asked Renewable Energy Development Agency, The Energy and Resources Institute,and Institute of economic growth to help draw INDC. In general,the PM has stated that India is keen to follow the Principles of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol(equity and Common But Differentiated Responsibilities), that should be the basis of deal.Sushil Kumar the India delegate for negotiation process,says that “We want all five key elements – adaptation, mitigation, finance, technology transfer, and capacity building must be there in the global climate deal. ” (See TOI 6.12.14.). The Panel of experts from Planning Commission has asked for investment of $834bn to reduce carbon footprint in India in next two decades to chalk out a low-carbon and environmentally friendly growth rate. (TOI 20.5.14). The emissions level with 2007 as base year will cut 42% of GDP by this investment. Nevertheless,it is recognised that it is time for action on climate change. The Hindu newspaper warns in its editorial on 23.9.14 regarding The New Climate Economy Report of the Global Commission On the Economy And Clmate. The Report of Commission is for action plan by all governments, businesses, financial institutions, and citizens to weigh the environmental resks and opportunities of their operations. The report calls for removal of current subsidy of $600bn on fossil fuel, and raising the $100bn support to renewables.The WHO has also warned of seven million premature deaths due air pollution. The Report suggests to redeploy $90 Trillion spents for infrastructure for next 15 years towards low-carbon technologies.In Delhi and neighbourhood, the use of LED electricity has reduced energy use by billions.The Report recommends that govts should set a target for 2025 on GHG and global annual target of zero or less by the latter half of century. As per estimates, US, EU, India account for 58% of global GHG emissions. (TOI 23.9.14). A UK research group estimates that the global carbon budget shows that future emissions cannot exceed 1200 billion tonnes to keep global warming by 66% chances below 2 degree centigrade, since pre-industrial times. This 1200bn tonnes at current rate will be used up in next 30 years. Thus one generation is left before safeguard to 2 degrees centigrade is threatened. Prof. Pierre Friedlingstein warns we have used two third of carbon we can burn,in order to keep warming below 2 degrees centigrade. If we carry on at current rate we will reach limit in next thirty years.It seems thereafter,the climate will breakdown due warming. In India therefore there are widespread changes in laws for land, water, forests, deserts to keep carbon level under control. Energy uses like solar has maximum benefits for environment friendly growth.Public transport by metros is growing. Car free days are observed.Inland waterways are promoted. Rain harvesting is done in all states to grow more food and forests. Govt is planning a national grid for food to control food prices. Skill development centres are opened to use human resources and employment for national economy. In other words,sustainable development is a national norm for lifestyle in India. Indian PM Narendra Modi recommends change of lifestyle in global terms to promote conservation and harmony with nature and its resources.
3. Sustainable Development In Haryana. Recent Developments.
Haryana is in an arid zone with large land mass in the West full of desert sands. Last few years has seen drought conditions. Almost 302 districts out of 614 are under pressure of drought. Hence the society and govt in Haryana are engaged in green movement to catch rain water, reform laws for land, water, forest, real etate, industry development, and other measures to create new forests, dams. Being near to NCR, Haryana gets attention for development. Metro train connections to Gurgaon and Faridabad have improved public transport. Smart towns are listed like Karnal and Faridabad to release pressure from other towns for comfortable life. Air pollution from Delhi is spreading to Haryana Towns. Big and small projects are underway for green developments. Solar energy, waste management, improved healthcare, new forests and dams building are giving new shape to SD in Haryana. Affordable homes are coming up all over.Ground water levels are being recharged.The Environment Department was created when Haryana State was born. Haryana has State Control Board for Pollution Control.Site clearance, environment clearences are given by this Board.The Board acts in cooperation with MOEF and CC and Central Pollution Control Board. Haryna Govt has a notification to ensure conservation of natural resources and save environment.Haryana is an agriculture state with 80% land being cultivated.Additional Chief Secretary is incharge of revenue and disaster management.Haryana Govt employs large staff for environment purposes. On forest policy, Haryana Govt has some differences with Union Govt.
The Govt Departments involved in environment and natural resources are power and renewable energy, transport and civil aviation, food production, irrigation and water resources, town planning and houses, minerals development, and agriculture. Foreign experts from various countries are engaged to improve efficient use of natural resurces like new seeds, drip irrigation,banana cultivation, vegetable growth etc. Land laws have been recently amended to use 26 acres plots for housing projects instead of 50 acres earlier. As per newspaper reports,Gurgaon town is being divided into four green zones with forests, dams, parks, playfields, affordable homes, industries, public transport to look like modern smart town. Dr Naresh Trehan, an enterprising medical giant says Gurgaon has been developed by efforts of its citizen. Today it compares with global standards in hospitals, hotels, diversity of life,metro transport some made, some in pipeline, Maruti car industry, other home appliances industries, and golf courses. It has beautifl modern malls.
Haryana has introduced many research projects for natural resources, power reduction and skill developments. It has water resources from Yamuna, Gajjar etc. New attempts are in progress to revive old rivers, dams, spiritual centres for tourism Rao Tula Ram, Ugarsen are remindful of great leaders of this state who are known for progress of Indian civilisation. Sonepat town is developed for new global education. Gurgaon has some outstanding education universities including Northcap University earlier known ITMUniversity for advancement in legal education,management,and engineering departments. A big national defence university is growing not far from Gurgaon to update the country in defence matters.
It seems Haryana is on pathway to great progress.Like Chandrababu Naidu who has global plans for a new Andhra Pradesh with Umbravati as capital. Haryana has many towns that have potential for modern smart towns of education and culture centres to attract global tourism. Never mind the western desert areas,Haryana is consulting Israel to make desert areas as pastures for new horticulture and food production. Bhutan says supply us vegetables from Haryana, and we provide hydro-energy. On a recent visit to India,a former President of Israel said that when Israel was formed in 1948, it had no land or water to grow food etc. But it had science to use ideas. He thinks India PM Modi is a big dreamer. Hence, India has to shine as a superpower to help remove global poverty, and save environment through sustainable development and avoid global warming and climate change.
Author: Prof. Saligram Bhatt, Professor Emeritus, SOL.